A Jack of All Trades or a Master of One: Specialists vs Generalists

The common saying, “jack of all trades, master of none”, seems to imply that specialisation is superior compared to dabbling in numerous fields. It’s incomplete however, and the actual quote conveys a different meaning:

“A jack of all trades is a master of none, but oftentimes better than a master of one”.

A capitalist society reveres the specialist; the more specialised you are, the more valued and respected you become, eventually leading to better remuneration. That being said, specialisation certainly has its place – there are countless specialists who have made significant contributions due to their in-depth knowledge in that specific area. In the medical field, for example, specialists are virtually a necessity as the field is simply too broad for individual mastery.

Benefits of being a specialist:

  • They are able to charge higher rates
  • They have in-depth knowledge of the subject matter
  • They can allocate all of their attention and focus on one field
  • They are regarded as experts in the field, and can act as consultants

The Case for the Generalist

Polymathy is severely underrated, especially in a capitalist economy that  idolises specialisation. I am certainly not against capitalism (we will get into this discussion in an upcoming post), but I do think that this is one of the drawbacks of the system.

If you are competent in a number or fields, you are essentially equipping yourself with a variety of resources and tools. Knowledge can be transferrable, and even applicable across disciplines – an advantage polymaths are able to capitalise on.

Benefits of being a polymath:

  • Talent in various fields
  • Able to apply knowledge gained in one field to another field
  • Ability to make connections easily
  • Critical thinking skills
  • Well rounded
  • Development in multiple areas
  • Able to apply skills in a variety of situations
  • Understand systems thinking or how concepts are interrelated
  • Yeah, this list is a lot longer than the benefits of being a specialist, I’m biased

Polymaths are able to draw upon their knowledge from multiple sources, enabling them to see and make connections that a specialist would not be able to. Innovation is often a result of combining ideas, and extending your areas of knowledge often assists in the process.

Robert Twigger (a British poet, writer and explorer), in his essay “Master of Many Trades“, summarises:

The real master has no tools at all, only a limitless capacity to improvise with what is to hand. The more fields of knowledge you cover, the greater your resources for improvisation.

Famous Polymaths of the Past and Present

Widely considered the epitome of polymathy, Leonardo da Vinci clearly illustrates the point I made above. He was an influential artist, inventor, engineer, botanist, writer, and sculptor, among other things, and it can be argued that he was able to do this because he was able to apply his knowledge from one area into the next.

Other examples from the time include Galileo Galilei and Michelangelo, while modern day polymaths include Tim Ferriss and Elon Musk.

For some interesting further reading, head over to “What Happened to the Polymaths? Some Modern Examples of Homo Universalis and How to Emulate Great Thinkers“. The article poses some interesting theories as to why there appear to be fewer modern polymaths.

“Use It or Lose It”

I’d also like to highlight another point that Twigger makes, about the common misconception that it is essential for one to be naturally gifted in order to succeed in this endeavour:

The fact that I succeeded where others were failing also gave me an important key to the secret of learning. There was nothing special about me, but I worked at it and I got it. One reason many people shy away from polymathic activity is that they think they can’t learn new skills. I believe we all can — and at any age too — but only if we keep learning. ‘Use it or lose it’ is the watchword of brain plasticity.

The Overachieving Brain Surgeon

Consider this: Can a specialist also be a generalist?

Let’s look at a hypothetical brain surgeon for a second. This surgeon is an example of a specialist, but let’s assume that he or she is also a guitar virtuoso, has a decent grasp on poker and chess and happens to be an excellent swimmer. Would the surgeon be still be considered a specialist or would they now be a generalist?

Firstly, do the terms “specialist” and “generalist” only apply to attributes that are relevant to the job market? I have not found a definitive answer to this question anywhere else so far, but I’m going to say that they are not.

From my perspective, the debate about whether it is better to be a specialist or a generalist is quite irrelevant because they are not mutually exclusive. Why choose a side when you can have the best of both worlds?

What do you think? Would you rather choose a side, and if so why? I’d love to hear your thoughts!


10 thoughts on “A Jack of All Trades or a Master of One: Specialists vs Generalists

  1. I really like both of those quotes from Twigger. Lifelong learning at any age is possible. As for myself I think I take a more general approach to learning and choose to learn a variety of things to an extent but also realize that to be a master is a lot of things is not really possible. Mastery takes time, sometimes a lifetime. There are benefits to both specializing and being a generalist. For myself I think the benefits of being a generalist are greater in terms of my own goals and preferences. I guess it might just come down to preference. Good food for thought, thanks for posting!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. That’s a really good perspective, I think you’re right about it being down to the person’s preference and how it aligns with their goals. What are your thoughts on the theory of 10,000 hours to achieving mastery? Is that a realistic expectation?

      Liked by 1 person

      1. I tried something like that with basketball the last year. I wanted to improve my 3pt shot so made it a goal to try and make 10000 3pt shots over a summer for practice. I got to 1000 by end of summer. Results, my 3 Pt shot improved significantly. Realistic? Maybe if it’s your profession but for most I think the takeaway is you got to practice to get better at anything. The more you do the better you’ll get. What do you think?


      2. That’s pretty cool that you managed that! Yeah, I agree with you. The 10000 hour theory makes sense to me, but I think it also involves a specific level of training and knowing how to progress. I’ve been playing the guitar for over 14 years, but being self-taught, I haven’t made any significant improvement, mostly because I never knew how. I’ve spent close to 10000 hours by now, but I would not call myself a master by any measure.

        I recently spoke to a guitarist who told me exactly how I could improve, and I think that was the element I was missing. Spending time alone isn’t enough when it’s a skill that involves multiple levels of progress, you need to have at least some idea of where you’re trying to get to, and how to do achieve that.

        Liked by 1 person

      3. True! 10,000 hours of practicing something the wrong way could just lead someone to be very good at doing something very badly haha. Some idea of how to achieve it is indeed needed. 🙂

        Liked by 1 person

  2. A very interesting post. I think they both have their place. Specialising in one field has it’s place and I think is very important in when employed. I want to be the best at what I do at work and be an expert in one field so that I receive a promotion over another.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. In terms of hobbies, I am definitely a generalist, I’m not partuculary fussed about being great at one thing. I just don’t have the time outside of work to dedicate to becoming an expert in one field. So I guess I do both but just in different parts of my life.


  4. Very interesting read. I find quite a lot of similarities between you and me, and consider myself to be a generalist as well. This is mostly because I’m simply interested in a lot of things. I bet you’re the same.

    Is Wikipedia also your favorite website? 😉

    Anyway, I’m enjoying your content! Keep it up.


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